Today’s entry follows up my successful layout of Ovid’s Remedia Amoris / The Cure for Love and employs the same side by side Latin / English text. Below you will find Chapter 5 of Richard Hakluyt’s The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation – Volume 2 published 1598-1600 in London, England.
Richard Hakluyt was an English author, editor, translator, and personal chaplain to Sir Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, principal Secretary of State to Elizabeth I and James I. A great history of his life and works can be found in his Wikipedia entry. Most notably, he was one of the biggest advocates for English colonization of Virginia. Some of his other exploration-related works include the Discovery of Muscovy, Voyagers Tales, Voyages in Searth of the North-West Passage, and numerous similar volumes related to The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (Project Gutenberg lists a total of 12 volumes altogether).
In the chapter below he describes the manners of the people of Tartary. This antiquated geographic name was used by Europeans from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean (see map above). Inhabited by Turkic and Mongol peoples of the Mongol Empire who were generically referred to as “Tartars”, the present day geography includes the current areas of Siberia, Turkestan (including East Turkestan), Greater Mongolia, and parts China. In many ways the book reminds me of how an antiquarian National Geographic article might have read. The aim of this book, and many of his other works, was to consolidate what others had written about different regions around the known world and in doing so help spread the diffusion of geographic & ethnographic knowledge.
Lastly, in regards to the transcription below, I did not modify the original Project Gutenberg text, so when reading please note that there are some typographic differences in the old English and contemporary English. Remember to change the lowercase V to a lowercase U and in some cases, change the I’s to J’s. I did consider updating the text to modern English, but in some ways I feel that it would be better to keep the text in it’s originally transcribed format. Unlike Ovid’s Remedia Amoris / The Cure for Love, I did not include the line numbers because they were not given in the original text. I did, however, separate the text into easy to read paragraphs. If you are reading this entry via Google Reader, the chapter can be better read by hiding the sidebar that shows your subscriptions by clicking the small arrow on the left separator or by pressing “u” on your keyboard to switch to wide screen.
I hope you enjoy reading it as much as I did:
De moribus eorum bonis et malis. | Of their manners both good and bad.
Habent autem mores quosdam quidem commendabiles, et quosdam detestabiles.
[Sidenote: [Greek: peitharchia].] Magis quippe sunt obedientes Dominis
suis, quÃ m aliqui qui in mundo sint homines, siue religiosi siue seculares.
Nam eos maximÃ¨ reuerentur, nec illis de facili mentiuntur verbis factisue:
[Sidenote: Abstinentia.] PrÃ¦dones etiam ac fures rerum magnarum ibi
Si aliqua bestia perdita fuerit,
[Sidenote: Comitas. Temperantia.] Apud quos ille, cuius est bestia, illam
Satis etiam sunt sufferentes, nec cÃ¹m ieiunauerint vno die, vel duobus, omninÃ²
In equitando multum sustinent frigus, calorem quoque nimium patiuntur.
Inter eos quasi nulla placita sunt, et quamuis multum
Nullus alium spernit, sed iuuat et promouet,
[Sidenote: Castitas.] CastÃ¦ sunt eorum mulieres,
[Sidenote: Insolentia aduersus exteros.] PorrÃ² erga cÃ¦teros homines ijdem
Vnde vidimus in curia Imperatoris magnum RussiÃ¦ ducem,
[Sidenote: Iracundia.] Quinetiam Tartari eisdem assignati,
PrÃ¦terea iracundi sunt, et indignantis naturÃ¦ multum erga cÃ¦teros homines,
[Sidenote: Fraudulentia.] Subdoli enim et fraudulenti sunt, et omnes homines
[Sidenote: Sordes. Temulentia.] Quicquid mali
Immundi quoque sunt in cibo et potu sumendis,
Ebrietas apud illos est honorabilis: cÃ¹mque multum aliquis biberit,
[Sidenote: [Greek: dorodoxia.]] Ad petendum maximi sunt exactores,
[Sidenote: Their obedience.] Their manners are partly prayse-worthie, and
partly detestable: For they are more obedient vnto their lords and masters,
then any other either clergie or laie-people in the whole world.
For they doe highly reuerence them, and will deceiue them, neither in wordes nor
[Sidenote: Their abstinence] There are neither theeues nor robbers of
If any beast goe astray, the finder thereof either lets it goe, or driueth it to
[Sidenote: Their courtesie.] One of them honoureth another
They are also very hardie, and when they haue fasted a day or two without any
In riding, they endure much cold and extreme heat.
There be, in a maner, no contentions among them, and although they vse commonly to be
Noe one of them despiseth another but helpeth and furthereth him,
[Sidenote: Their chastity.] Their women are chaste, neither is
[Sidenote: Their insolencie against strangers.] But towards other people, the
For we saw in the Emperours court the great duke of Russia,
So that euen the very Tartars assigned to giue attendance vnto them,
Moreouer they are angrie and of a disdainfull nature vnto other people,
For craftie they are, and full of falshood, circumuenting all men whom they are able,
Whatsoeuer mischiefe they entend to practise against a man
They are vnmanerly also and vncleanly in taking their meat and their drinke,
Drunkennes is honourable among them, and when any of them hath
They are most intollerable exacters, most couetous possessours,